Jun 162015

It feels as though the list of outstanding tasks is getting longer rather than shorter. So they have been prioritised into those required for the MOT and those that can wait. Due to the age of the car the MOT is essentially limited to checking the suspension, fuel/brake lines and lights. However, knowing the person doing the MOT, I’d asked them if they would cast a more critical eye over the whole car.

I’d been having trouble balancing the carbs and, although it’s not part of the MOT, I thought it best to have a second pair of eyes look over them. The front two cylinders are running too lean, even though all three carbs have been set to the standard reference point for tuning. So it will be tuned and the headlights aligned beforehand.

I also have concerns about the fuel flow. Last year the petrol tank had be put in-situ to just to start the engine for the first time. The tank was then removed to be painted and since then I noticed that the fuel flow seems to be rather low. Although I suspect I just hadn’t noticed the problem before.

Testing fuel flow from pump Comparing the fuel flows per minute:
250ml at front bulkhead in bottle,
2litres at rear bulkhead in jug

The measurements of the amount of fuel pumped in one minute was taken at the rear bulkhead union and then at the other end of the pipe at the union on the front bulkhead. Although it’s not really a valid test, as there wouldn’t be any back pressure at the rear union, it did provide a feel for the drop off in flow – 2 litres per minute measured at the rear bulkhead union and only 250ml per minute at the front bulkhead union.

Suspicion is that it may be due to an air-lock created in the pipes. However advice from the forum suggested that a pump in good working order would have more than enough ummph to purge any air locks. Some further checks will be done to get to the bottom of the problem.

Longacre Camber/Castor Tool

The intention was to set up the suspension geometry myself and so I’d purchased a Longacre electronic camber/castor tool and a Trackace tool for the wheel alignment. The camber/castor tool has three legs which rest against the wheel rim with an accurate inclinometer attached in the centre. However I wasn’t thinking things through and had completely overlooked needing clearance for the central spinners.

The prongs on the legs don’t have the reach so I’ll have to have some made up. Unfortunately the MOT centre no longer has accurate electronic measuring tools for suspension set up. This will have to wait until after the MOT.

For some reason one of the dash indicator tell-tale lights had stopped working and the fault traced to the switches in the indicator stalk. It was easier to take the whole steering column off and investigate further on the bench. A loose back-plate on the switch mechanism had allowed the indicator contact to move about and be bent out of shape. So it was easily rectified.

The clamping bolts on the upper and lower steering column’s UJs had been taken off to aid the removal of the upper column. However, I’d become side-tracked and had not refitted them before attempting to tick off another pre-MOT task … making sure the speedo drive was working.

Needless to say, as I was turning round, after completing a successful straight 40 yard speedo run up the drive, the lower column dropped out of its splines. All steering was lost, blocking a now busy communal drive!
Apart from being stupid, it was a rather timely reminder! The complete suspension parts list was used as a check sheet to ensure every suspension nut and bolt was revisited to make sure everything was correctly torqued.

Mudguards, shields and undertrays
The various mudguards, shields and undertrays aren’t strictly necessary for the MOT. However they were fitted, as the horn relay needs to be mounted on the LH mudguard. John Farrell had produced a good guide to the locations and orientations of the five different types of brackets:

Front frame bracket locations Five different bracket sizes

The first to be installed was the air in-take shield which is attached to bracket A at the top and B at the bottom. The leading face is also bolted directly to the frame. It’s worth noting that bracket E for the floor undertray needs to be put in place around the frame before the shield is attached. In fact it’s worth putting all the brackets in place before attaching any of the mudguards, shields and undertrays.

A & B brackets for air intake shield Bracket E for undertray is fitted
before in-take shield!

The bracket attachments to the frames are identical on both sides of the car, with the obvious exception of the air in-take shield. The torsion bar shields are attached by three brackets – the rear two have the tab with the bolt holes pointing upwards while the front one points downward. Note: the middle bracket on the LH frame is also used to secure the bottom of the exhaust heat shield.

Alternate rear torsion bar shield
& undertray brackets
Shield bracket also attaches bottom
edge of exhaust heat shield
Front torsion bar bracket (L)
and mudguard bracket (R)

The two floor undertrays are simply bolted in place. Although the right hand undertray has a cut out with a separate cover to provide access to the oil filter.

Left hand undertray Right hand undertray,
without oil filter access panel

There wasn’t any point in completing the fitting the mudguards because they will have to be removed to provide access to set the camber and castor. So at this stage they were only bolted to the sill end panel and attached at the front to a side frame bracket. At least this allowed the horn relay to secured for the MOT. Normally the alternator and aircon (when fitted) relays would also be attached to the LH mudguard, but by modifying the alternator it no longer requires a relay.

LH mudguard temporarily in place just for the MOT Location of horn relay. Alternator relay isn’t needed

Air Filter
I was regretting not trial fitting the air filter earlier. The new fuel pipe I’d made protruded too far from the face of the toe box, hitting the air filter. Fortunately it was possible to remove a short length from the filter end which resolved the fitting problem but re-introduced all the air bubbles causing the air locks.

It took a while to work out the best method of fitting the air filter element, canister lid and air plenum. Once the canister lid and rubber grommet are in place, there wasn’t sufficient access to pull the grommet up around the lip of the plenum chamber. Eventually I found the best solution was to connect these components off the car and then fit and remove as a single unit.

Filter canister was hitting the fuel pipe Adjusted fuel pipe now narrowly misses it Fitting canister lid first didn’t work

Alternator testing
Another task was to ensure the alternator was charging properly when the engine was running at higher revs. The outcome wasn’t as I’d hoped – it wasn’t charging at all, measuring only 12.5 volts! The converted alternator is now self-energising – the AL terminal, normally used for monitoring the alternator output via the ignition warning light, now provides a DC supply to power the field coil. Finding earth via the field coil through the 4TR voltage regulator.

Testing the alternator

The AL terminal was reading zero voltages at idle rather than the expected 14.3 volts! The voltage regulator controls the alternators output to avoid ‘run-away’ where its output would continue increasing until it burnt out the various internal components and/or windings. Increasing the voltage across the field coil increases the alternator output voltage, which in turn increases the field coil voltage.

The 4TR regulator acts as a fast-acting on/off switch. When the output of the alternator increases above a determined voltage (around 14.6v), the regulator switches off the current flowing in the field coil and therefore the alternator voltage drops. Once it has dropped sufficiently, it switches the current in the field coil back on and the alternator output starts to increase, until the cycle repeats.

A passing peacock offered
no helpful advice!!

Suspicion fell naturally on my modifications to the alternator and also the 4TR regulator, which are known to be fragile. A faulty voltage regulator can easily be identified by removing it and using a jumper lead to connect the F and ‘-‘ leads in its connector.

If it is faulty, starting the engine will cause it to start charging (indicated by the alternator output voltage or the battery gauge rising above the battery’s normal 12.3-4 volts) If so, the engine should be switched off immediately and the 4TR unit replaced. It was a great relief to find it was the 4TR unit that was at fault and not my handiwork! A replacement was ordered which confirmed the diagnosis and it is now working as expected.

Crossing fingers
I didn’t want to drill holes in the bodywork for side mirrors and so some clamp on mirrors have been attached to the window frames. That just about completed all the pre-MOT jobs.

Clamp on side mirrors fitted After all this time, it’s finally ready for the MOT!!

For the first time in several decades, 1R1421 hit the road …… on it’s way to the MOT centre! …. fingers firmly crossed!!

Nov 162013

One of the first modifications I’d decided to make was the change to an adjustable reaction plate for the torsion bars. In part the decision was due to the enormous trouble I’d had removing the torsion bars and reaction plate.

Also, even though the front suspension should only need to be set up once, if there was some settling of the suspension after the rebuild, subsequent fettling would be far easier. So I purchased an adjustable reaction plate from Rob Beere and followed Bob Skelly’s excellent installation guide.
– PDF Version

The bolt tubes on standard reaction plate are flush with the outer edges .... unlike the adjustable plateI’d planned to install the front suspension and torsion bars on two previous occasions. However, both times, progress had been thwarted due to some other fitting ‘difficulties’ that had been encountered. The first when installing the IRS and subsequently the engine.

So it shouldn’t have come as a surprise that fitting the reaction plate would be equally challenging! The first problem was the adjustable reaction plate was approximately 3-4mm wider than the original. The tubes for the bolts securing the plate to the underfloor channels protruded much further beyond the outer edges.

Rob Beere suggested using a pry bar and the need for a tight fit, which may well need hammering to ‘persuade’ it into position. If this didn’t work, the ends of the tubes could be ground down slightly to fit. No matter what I tried I couldn’t get it to fit and so had to resort to the latter.

The large Allen bolts are fitted first. Some paint repairs are now needed due to the tight fit and the need to tap the reaction plate into positionEven so, it still required hitting home with the nylon hammer. The various attempts to get the reaction plate to fit resulted in some damage to the paint work, which will need to be repaired.

Fortunately there are a number of other adjacent areas that still need to be touched up, where the chassis was attached to the support frame during painting. So these can all be tackled at the same time before the exhaust is fitted.

It was surprising to see that the new clutch slave cylinder had started to show some surface rust, even in the short time since the transmission was installed. I’ll have to treat it with some Dinitrol hard wax asap.

Bob’s instructions suggested tightening the large Allen key bolts once the upper bolts had been inserted. However I had slight alignment issues with all the mounting bolts and the torsion bar ‘ear’ brackets. Once the Allen and upper bolts were tightened, it was impossible to fit the remaining bolts and brackets.

The torsion bar 'ear' bracket and the upper & lower mounting bolts were all fitted before everything was tightened upI found it was necessary to have everything initially finger tight, which enabled a screwdriver to be inserted in bolt holes to pry the other mounting holes in the frame into alignment with those in the reaction plate.

The fitting order that worked for me was the large Allen bolts followed by the ‘ear’ brackets, the upper bolts and finally the lower pre-cut bolts.

Only once all these were in place could everything, except the bolt through the ‘ear’, be fully tightened. It is worth reiterating that:
i) the Allen bolts need to be tightened before the adjusting cam is fitted, as the nut securing the cam obstructs access to the head of the Allen bolt
ii) the ear brackets needs to be at the top of their permitted travel before tightening the lower pre-cut bolts.

Labels were added to mark the steps in the adjusting camI also followed the advice of labelling the cam steps and then painting the outer face with some clear lacquer. However I didn’t bother highlighting the edges of the steps as I thought this was a bit of overkill.

With hindsight, I think not adding the highlights was a slight mistake. It would have provided a better visual guide to ensure the step of the cam is parallel with the edge of the torsion bar ‘ear’ bracket.

It’s not a major problem, provided there’s sufficient light when setting the cams. If I were to do it again, I’d use two bright, contrasting colours to paint alternate step edges.

I’d not been looking forward to fitting the torsion bars. I hadn’t been able to dismantle them in the conventional manner, described in the various service manuals. There wasn’t even a slight hint of movement in the torsion bars despite some very hefty blows wielding a club hammer. In the end, as an act of self-preservation, I conceded defeat and removed each side of the suspension as single units.

Time for some (dubious) Maths – the torsion bar setting link
The shock aborber is replaced by a fixed length link to provide a datum point when setting the torsion bars. This should then give the correct ride height, although the adjustable reaction plate would then come into its own if it needed subsequent tweaking. The setting link for the early cars was 17 13/16″, however this had increased to 17 31/32″ for the S2 cars.

I’d obtained some replacement torsion bars at Stoneleigh but hadn’t realised at the time that almost all new torsion bars are ‘uprated’. The standard bars are 0.77″ in diameter while the replacements were 0.85″. As a result, the bars will be stiffer, so using the recommended setting link length would result in the ride height being too high …. but by how much?

A plot of Classic Jaguar's recommended setting link lengths against Torsion Bar diametersAfter some research I found that Classic Jaguar in America had produced a chart with recommended setting link lengths for various torsion bar diameters.

Unfortunately they don’t have a figure for 0.85″ bars so I thought I’d plot their recommendations in order to determine the link length required. The graph wasn’t what I was expecting, with a linear relationship between the setting link length and the torsion bar diameter.

Hmmmm! Perhaps I’m missing something as I thought the torsional stiffness or angular deflection of a solid bar was inversely proportional to the diameter to the power of 4. Still, without anything better to work from, using a linear calculation the setting link length needed was 43.1cm.

Fitting of the torsion bars
Replacing the shock absorber with the setting link provides a datum point for setting the ride heightThe calculated length of the setting link should give me roughly the correct ride height (fingers crossed etc). So I chose to set the reaction plate cam to the mid-setting ‘4’ and will be able to raise or lower the ride height if it’s not exactly right. With the setting link in place and the ‘ear’ bracket locked at setting ‘4’, the rotational positions of the front and rear splines in the suspension are fixed.

The torsion bar has a different number of splines at each end – 25 at the rear and 24 at the front. This provides a high resolution vernier adjustment, allowing the torsion bars to be set very accurately and therefore the ride height. The fitting of the torsion bar is now a matter of trial and error, rotating the bar by one rear spline at a time until the front splines are perfectly aligned with those in the wishbone.

A rotation of one rear spline is equal to 14.4 degrees while it needs 15 degrees of rotation to move on by one front spline. Another way of looking at it is when the bar is turned by one rear spline, the relative position of the front splines is altered by 0.6 degrees, in the opposite direction to the direction of rotation. The front splines will align perfectly for one of the 25 possible orientations!!

The torsion bars need to be passed rearward all the way through the 'ear' bracket. The torsion bars were protected to avoid the splines damaging the paint of the barsI had passed both splined ends of the torsion bars through their corresponding mating pieces a dozen or so times until I was satisifed it would only need three or four solid blows to hammer them home.

The torsion bar need to be passed rearward through the rear ‘ear’ mounting and then forward again until the front meets the splined hole in the lower wishbone. However the splines were still too tight a fit. It was necessary to carefully file the spline faces on the torsion bar until it only took one firm tap to fully engage the splines.

This enabled the torsion bars to be pushed forward by hand until the front was 1mm or so from the rear face of the wishbone. A tap with the hammer would then bring the bar up to the wishbone, at which point it was possible to determine if the splines were correctly aligned. I used a 12″ pointed concrete chisel for a drift, so the point could sit in the indentation at either end of the bars.

The mistakes I made were:

  • Smothering Copperslip over the front splines on both the bar and within the wishbone
  • Blindly accepting the view that it’s a matter of trial and error to find the best fit

The Copperslip did a splendid job of masking whether the splines were properly aligned and so it was all wiped off. The best time to apply it was once the correct orientation had been determined and the front splines had just engaged.

I followed the advice of adopting a methodical approach of rotating one spline at a time until an exact fit was achieved. After completing one full rotation I wasn’t convinced I was any the wiser. The correct orientation had probably been missed under the cover of Cooperslip!

It was only at this point did I sit down and work out the Maths of the relative 0.6 degree movement of the front splines for a rotation of one rear spline. A couple of minutes of thought up front would have saved several hours of grief and frustration with a club hammer! Armed with that knowledge, it was then quite easy to quickly home in on a small area of splines spanning the best fit.

As an example:

Front spline need clockwise rotation Result of rotating anti-clockwise by one rear spline Eventually an exact alignment is reached

In the left photo, gaps can clearly be seen between the splines. The front splines need to be rotated clockwise to close these gaps. The middle photo was taken after the torsion bar had be rotated anti-clockwise by one spline. The gaps have clearly been reduced.

Eventually an exact or best match is achieved. Although I found when viewed from the lower inboard (7-8 0’clock) the front spline alignment would look spot on. However when viewed from the top outboard position (1-2 O’clock), gaps would be visible.

I think this is because the angle between torsion bar and the wishbone isn’t exactly at 90 degrees. So the lower inbound splines start engaging before the top outbound splines. Hence why gaps are still visible from one view and not the other!

Finally the torsion bars were both in and I’ve now less fear of tackling them again in future.

A milestone is reached – back on 4 wheels … almost!!

 Front Suspension  Comments Off on A milestone is reached – back on 4 wheels … almost!!
Sep 042013

The issues getting the rear suspension fitted meant that there wasn’t time to fit the front suspension let alone the engine.

The front frames were removed to fit the tiny radiator support brackets. As the frame bolts pass through the front suspension mounts, these and the roll bar were refitted at the same time as the frames.

I must mention to Andy at Hutsons that it would be a good idea to fit the radiator brackets on S2 cars before bodyshells are returned to customers.

I started with the easier upper wishbones and found the castellation nuts need to be fully tightened to compress the rubber bushes. This pulls the front and rear fulcrum mounts together so the bolts holes line up.

The original camber shims had been re-plated and were fitted behind the front and rear mounts. I suspect the shimming will need to be changed when the geometry is finally set up because the new engine frames have been fitted.

At least it should be a good starting point. The rear mounts also have a strengthening plate fitted on the reverse side on the engine frame, under the nuts. One of these was missing so I suspect at some point the suspension had been dismantled and they’d forgotten to refit it.

The castellation nuts were then backed off as they should only be fully tightened once the full weight of the car is supported by the suspension to avoid damaging the rubber bushes. The wishbone pinch bolts were also not tightened as the fulcrum shaft will need to be rotated during the final setup to set the castor angle.

The upper wishbones were fairly easy to install as they simply bolt on The lower wishbones were much harder as both the front and rear mounts need slotting into the engine frame

For now the aim is to get the car back on four wheels so it can be moved around more safely. The front suspension can only be completed once the engine has been installed when the torsion bars are fitted. This will require the upper ball and steering arm joints to be separated. So at this stage, only the lower ball joint was fully tightened. Without the torsion bars the car should just settle on the shock absorber bump stops.

The moment had arrived. The lowering of the car back on to its own four wheels. Something that hadn’t happened for many, many years. The trolley jack was lowered very gently …. touch down (pats on back etc) …. then lower …. and lower …. and lower …. and so it carried on. I had to close the bonnet and control the jack from underneath but I was getting worried that the bump stops wouldn’t be reached. Do they even have bump stops?!

Will the bump stops ever be reached? ..... No! The car had to be put back onto the axle trolley.

The trolley jack finally reached it’s lowest height so I had to revert to Plan B – back on to the axle trolley until the engine and torsion bars are fitted. Ho hum …. a FAIL! I really should have just measured the compressed shock absorber length when it was off the car and then done some simple Maths. Another lesson learnt!

Building up the front suspension

 Front Suspension  Comments Off on Building up the front suspension
Aug 152013

The plating didn’t go quite to plan as I hadn’t expected (or asked!) for the parts to be yellow passivated so the final look wasn’t really what I had in mind. The photos below show the ‘oil slick’ appearance that comes from the yellow passivation. Another lesson learnt – don’t assume anything and be explicit in your requirements!

I’m sure they used it with best intentions, as it provides slightly greater protection, or it’s the default colour but I’m kicking myself now. Still a number of people have advised on painting rather than plating for a more durable finish – now I’ll have the best of both worlds!! Anyway the aim is to drive the car rather than polish it for show!

The bracket faces that are in contact with the engine frames and the fulcrum shafts were masked to avoid any clearance problems later on. All the suspension parts were then given three coats of aluminium Epoxy Mastic 121. The parts were left for a couple of days to allow the paint to fully cure and harden.

It was also time to come off the fence as I needed to decide on whether to use the standard rubber bushes or install ‘upgraded’ polyurethane ones, such as Superflex. I’d fitted polyurethane bushes on my Elise but after several years the bushes would squeak going over even the slightest road imperfection. I think this was probably largely due to the garage not applying the correct grease (if any!) when they were installed.

In the end I’ve decided to keep to the standard rubber bushes, which were fairly easy to press in the bushes using a vice and liberal amounts of washing up liquid.

Standard rubber bushes were used in the end rebuilt wishbones and uprights ready to go on Sealed for life XJ40 lower ball joints were used

I’d been toying with the idea of buying a hydraulic press since the start of the restoration but, each time I’d needed one during the rebuild, the job was farmed out. I couldn’t justify the cost of a press now, at such a late stage, and so took the front uprights, hubs and a print out of the suspension section of the manual to the local garage while I built up the wishbones.

I hadn’t felt the need to state the obvious, that the hubs have different handed threads, because they were clearly labelled ‘LH’ and ‘RH’. Sure enough, when I picked them up a couple of days later, they had put the hubs on the wrong way round! What was that about not assuming anything and being explicit in my requirements!

I thought it would be easier to sort that out once they’re on the car and set about finishing off the simple task of putting the upper and lower wishbones together.

Finally the sealed for life XJ40 lower ball joint units were fitted to the uprights. Far easier than the original set up which required shimming. The suspension parts are now all ready to be bolted on next weekend.

The plan was to install both the front and rear suspension, steering, the engine and gearbox and all the engine bay components with the aim to get the engine running. Unfortunately I’ve not managed to sort out the dreaded fuel tank yet so the testing of the engine will have to wait.

Aug 122013

The dismantling of the front suspension was by far and away the hardest part of the stripping down. I suspect it had never been apart since it left the factory and hadn’t seen much in the way of maintenance.

The only parts that could be removed were the two upper wishbones. It took some fairly heavy blows with two club hammers to get the ball joints to split it. The rest of the suspension had to be taken off the car in one piece so it could be soaked in penetrating oil for many weeks.

Front suspension had seen little maintenance Dismantling was easiest off the car Axle carrier limited access to the lower ball joint

Even after that time, it hadn’t made the slightest bit of difference and all the bushes and bolts were still refusing to come off. I tried to press out one of the shock absorber bolts that also hold the two wishbone arms together. However all I succeeded in doing was to bend the bolt!

Progress was painfully slow and often I would get to a part that wouldn’t budge no matter what I tried. So I’d put it to one side and come back to it in a week or so, with renewed vigour. Eventually, over three months later after applying everything from penetrating oil, heat, cold, fire and a lot of frustration, it had been dismantled into the individual components.

Upper ball joint is prone to wear Lower ball joints will be replaced with sealed for life ones Suspension parts ready for shot blasting

The plan was to get the upper wishbones machined to accept a modern ball joint and then shot blast the parts before re-plating them. The lower ball joints will also be replaced with more modern XJ40 sealed for life units. Nowadays most people seem to Nickel plate the suspension as the original Cadmium is no longer available. It’s generally limited to aviation components now due to the toxicity of the plating process.

I’m not a great fan of Nickel plating as I’d had my Elise suspension plated a few years ago and it hadn’t lasted very long. The main problem is that it isn’t a sacrificial coating like Cadmium and Zinc. Once the surface is damaged it corrodes from beneath. It’s also quite difficult to get rid of when it will inevitably need redoing and requires special Nickel stripping.

After a lot of research I found the best alternative to Cadmium was Zinc-Nickel. It also has the benefit of having a duller finish and so is a lot less blingy that bright Zinc.

Several others recommended just painting or powder coating, although this is somewhat frowned upon by the purists. Also a more flexible paint coating can hide stress fractures until it’s too late! I’d played around with spraying some of the zinc plated bracketry with a satin lacquer which produced the best compromise. It provided a ‘toned down’ plated look but with the added benefit of more durability. Decision made!

Not many companies do Zinc-Nickel plating and generally don’t take private work from individuals. Fortunately I was able to arrange for my parts to be Zinc-Nickel plated as a favour. However, without asking for it, they had yellow passivated them so they had an ‘oil slick’ appearance which I think would have looked awful on the car.

So to plan B – rather than adding a satin clear coat as planned, I would paint them in aluminium Epoxy Mastic 121. The combination of the plating and Epoxy paint should mean they keep their appearance for many years to come.

Jun 042013

An almost standard replacement for the front suspension lower ball joint is the later sealed for life units. Less so is fitting a modern upper ball joint as it requires the case hardened wishbone to be machined to fit. If wear occurs in the upper ball joint, it is often as a result of wear in the wishbone’s ball joint seat, which becomes more oval in shape.

After a lot of deliberation, I opted to change the upper ball joints as well, using a kit from CMC as the local machine shop agreed to do the necessary milling of the wishbones.

I was less convinced of their ability when the kit was taken round and thought it wise to seek someone else to do the work. The instructions suggest annealing by heating the wishbones to cherry red and allowing it to cool slowly. All the larger firms weren’t interested and the independent machinists were few and far between.

The components of the CMC ball joint kit, including the mystery small nylon washerIn my hour of need I turned to E-Type International Rescue – McLaren’s Skunk Work team. There was some bemusement as to why the kit contained a pack of 9 shims rather than machining the wishbones correctly.

Also the brevity of the instructions had not explained the need for a small nylon washer in the setup.

After a few discussions it was decided that a grease nipple inserted into the cover plate would protrude below the plate. So the kit included a nylon spacer and a similar depth of shims to allow for the depth of the nipple below the cover plate. Ideally the plate should have been designed accordingly rather than requiring shimming and therefore additional machining.

The wishbone was media blaster before profile milling to match the shape of the nylon ball joint cupThe ball joint bores were profile milled with a ball-ended tool around the circumference, progressively stepping down after each revolution until it had cut to the required parallel depth.

At which point the wishbones were machined to match the curvature of the green nylon ball joint cup by reducing the circumference with each step down.

I’m really pleased as I had precious little chance of fitting newer ball joints without their help. I now owe several loans of the car … once it’s finished!

The completed wishbone and new ball joint awaiting fitting of the circlip